Citroën (2009-2019): C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C8, Berlingo, Clever, Jumper, Jumpy, Nemo, Xsara.

This list may be updated as the investigations by the Foundation are still ongoing.


The Foundation is of the opinion that all diesel vehicles, which were brought on the market in the period 2009-2019 under the Euro 5 or Euro 6 emission standard, are equipped with an illegal defeat device. More specifically, preliminary investigations by the Foundation, indicate that the engines in question may be those listed below.

  • Engine capacity (in cubic centimetres and/or litres):
    • 1248
    • 1398
    • 1399
    • 1499
    • 1560
    • 1868
    • 1997
    • 2179
    • 2198
    • 2720
    • 2992
    • 2999
  • Another indication of the presence of an illegal defeat device is the type of motors listed below. Type of motor:
    • DT17
    • DT20
    • DV4
    • DV5
    • DV6
    • DW8
    • DW10
    • DW12
    • F30DT
    • F30DTE
    • P22DTE

Additional car models, or engine types, may be added to this list as the investigations by the Foundation are still ongoing.


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The Case Against Peugeot, Citroën and DS

Peugeot, Citroën and DS were all part of the (former) PSA Group, which merged with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) into Stellantis in 2021. In the Netherlands alone Peugeot, Citroën and DS have sold around 200.000 diesel vehicles. Millions more were sold on the European market.

According to various sources of information researched by and available to the Foundation, all these Peugeot, Citroën and DS diesel cars were provided with illegal defeat devices. These illegal defeat devices ensure that the vehicles concerned `comply` with the EU type-approval emission standards while tested, whilst, in reality, they do not.  The Euro 5 vehicles (that were sold from 2009 to 2014) contain, inter alia, a thermal window that ensures that the emission control systems shut down during common temperatures. In addition, the Euro 6 vehicles (2015 to 2019) include additional illegal defeat devices that ensure that the AdBlue dosing is reduced substantially during the normal use of the vehicles. As a result, Peugeot, Citroën and DS emit much more NOx than legally permitted. In some cases, more than fourteen times the statutory limit. Despite this fraud, the PSA Group advertised its vehicles as being particularly environmentally friendly.

Peugeot, Citroën and DS’s reaction

With its actions the (former) PSA Group (currently the Stellanis Group) has caused extensive damage. The market for diesel cars has plummeted and the value of the cars has been reduced considerably. Moreover, the environment and public health have suffered at the hands of PSA’s Group behaviour. The French government initiated criminal proceedings against various entities within the PSA Group and in Germany a criminal investigation is pending as well. However, Peugeot, Citroën and DS continue to present themselves as “green” companies and act as if they are unaware of any wrongdoing.

Our Goals

Individual car owners don’t have the means to hold large international companies like Stellantis accountable. As a result, large companies tend to go free resulting in their customers being left empty-handed. The consequences of Peugeot, Citroën and DS’ (and Stellantis’) wrongdoing are, amongst others, a lower sales value of the diesel cars on the second-hand market and higher maintenance costs. However, relatively new legislation in the Netherlands, called the WAMCA, makes it possible for representatives like the Foundation to file a collective claim for damages on behalf of all injured parties. If this new legislation is found to be applicable, this may allow the Foundation to recover financial or other compensation to which you may be entitled on your behalf, without any risk to you.

The Foundation has already initiated class actions against five large automotive concerns (of which two are against Stellantis). With this, the Foundation has acquired substantial experience with tracking down illegal defeat devices and identifying affected vehicles. The Foundation has close relations with a leading IT expert that previously exposed the functioning of illegal defeat devices in cars of different brands, namely Volkswagen, Fiat, and Mercedes-Benz. The Foundation is currently the only Dutch representative that has this type of (technical) expertise. This expertise can and will ensure that the Foundation can make a difference. This expertise is what makes the Foundation the most suitable party to pursue your interests.


The Foundation started proceedings against, amongst others, Peugeot, Citroën and DS on 19 January 2022. The case is pending before the Amsterdam District Court and is registered under case number C/13/712812 / HA ZA 22-72. The defendants in the proceedings are Stellantis N.V., Stellantis Nederland B.V., PSA Automobiles S.A., Automobiles Peugeot S.A., Automobiles Citroën S.A.S., Opel Automobile GmbH, Adam Opel GmbH, General Motors Company, General Motors LLC, General Motors Holdings LLC, Vauxhall Motors Limited, Vauxhall Finance plc, IBC Vehicles Limited, PSA Retail UK Limited, and 126 Dutch car dealers. A list of all the car dealers involved in the proceedings can be found here.


By judgment of 13 September 2023, the court declared Emissions Justice admissible in its claims. This means that the substantive phase has now begun. The defendants have to serve their briefs on the merits on 21 February 2024.


  • On 19 January 2022, Emissions Justice served a writ of summons on Peugeot, Citroën, DS, Opel, Vauxhall, and General Motors and their parent company Stellantis N.V. The writ of summons can be found Emissions Justice also summoned 126 Dutch car dealers who sold cars by these car manufacturers. Previously, on 17 august 2021, Emissions Justice had requested the Amsterdam district court to extend the period in which Emissions Justice may also initiate a collective action against the same defendants. Emissions Justice had to do so because another foundation, Stichting Emission Claim, had already started a collective action some of the same defendants against. The Amsterdam district court granted Emissions Justice’s request and extended the time limit with three months (see decision). Stichting Car Claim, another foundation, also requested an extension and was also granted this.
  • On 16 February 2022, 4 May 2022, and 11 May 2022, the car manufacturers entered an appearance in the proceedings. However, the car dealers failed to enter an appearance and were declared to be in default by the court.
  • On 22 June 2022, the court proposed the procedural order. The parties were allowed to respond to the proposal. Emissions Justice did so on 6 July 2022. On 20 July 2022, the court adopted the procedural order. The procedural order can be found here. The first phase of the proceedings will deal with jurisdiction of the Amsterdam court, which collective action regime is applicable, admissibility of the Emissions Justice and the other foundations, applicable law, and appointment of the exclusive representative.
  • On 17 August 2022, Emissions Justice submitted a brief on why it should be appointed as the exclusive representative in these proceedings.
  • On 5 October 2022, the car dealers entered an appearance in the proceedings.
  • On 9 November 2022, the defendants submitted a statement of defence regarding their views on jurisdiction, applicable law, admissibility of Emissions Justice, the exclusive representative, and applicability of the WAMCA.
  • On 14 March 2023, a hearing took place before the Amsterdam District Court on the aforementioned issues.
  • The court rendered its judgment on 16 August 2023. In short, it ruled that it only has jurisdiction over Dutch car owners and the old collective action law applies. In relation to its admissibility, It requested Emissions Justice to submit the litigation funding agreement to the court. Emissions Justice did so on 13 September 2023.
  • By decision of 29 November 2023, the court declared Emissions Justice admissible in its claims.
  • The defendants are to submit their statement of defense on the merits of the claim on 21 February 2024.

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